ECOLOGY OF RED VENTED BULBUL (PYCONONOTUS CAFER) BY GIS MAPPING TECHNIQUE IN DISTRICT MIANWALI, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

Red vented Bulbul is a group of medium-sized olive-winged birds. They have sort of short bills that are flimsy and twisted with long tails and rounded wings. Many such species have hair-like neck plumes, bristles, and a lovely peak.

The Pycnonotidae family is the largest family of passerine birds. Globally, 130 bulbul species are recognised, of which five species are recorded to occur in Pakistan (Lepage, 2007); (Roberts, 1991).

It is common across the Indus plain in Pakistan and in all vegetative areas, excluding Balouchistan or some desert region (Roberts, 1991). The red vented bulb (Pycnonotus Cafer) is listed in the IUCN Red List of bird species as a least of concern (IUCN, 2013). R vented bulbul mating season begins in February and ends in September (Balakrishnan, 2007)

ECOLOGY OF RED VENTED BULBUL (PYCONONOTUS CAFER) BY GIS MAPPING TECHNIQUE IN DISTRICT MIANWALI, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

Ecological Modeling of Red Vented Bulbul (PYCONONOTUS CAFER) BY GIS MAPPING TECHNIQUE IN DISTRICT MIANWALI, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN.

 Submitted BY

Muhammad Tariq Khan

Session 2019-2021

ID: PZOL07193013

Supervisor

Mr. Abdur Rehman Azam

Co Supervisor

Dr. Sana Ashraf

 Department of Zoology

The University of Lahore, Sargodha Campus

Sr. No Contents Page No
1 INTRODUCTION 3
1.1 APPEARANCE 3
1.2 BREEDING 4
1.3 STATUS 4
1.4 THREATS AND PROTECTION 4
1.5 ROLE OF GIS 4
2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 5
3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6
4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 11
4.1 STUDY AREA 11
4.2 MATERIALS 12
4.3 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 13
5 LITERATURE CITED 14

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ECOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF RED VENTED BULBUL (PYCONONOTUS CAFER) USING GIS TECHNIQUE IN TEHSIL     MIANWALI, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

  1. INTRODUCTION:

Red vented Bulbul is a group of medium-sized olive-winged birds. They have sort of short bills that are flimsy and twisted with long tails and rounded wings. Many such species have hair-like neck plumes, bristles, and a lovely peak. The Pycnonotidae family is the largest family of passerine birds. Globally, 130 bulbul species are recognised, of which five species are recorded to occur in Pakistan (Lepage, 2007); (Roberts, 1991). It is common across the Indus plain in Pakistan and in all vegetative areas, excluding Balouchistan or some desert region (Roberts, 1991). The red vented bulb (Pycnonotus Cafer) is listed in the IUCN Red List of bird species as a least of concern (IUCN, 2013). R vented bulbul mating season begins in February and ends in September (Balakrishnan, 2007). They are generally arboreal and inhabited in the rural areas, nestling on trees and ground. Among all the different kinds of bulbs, the Hypsipetes have relatively long wings. Bulbuls are about 120 species of medium-sized, perched feathered birds, spread across 15 genera, and make up the Pycnonotidae family, found in Southern Asia, Africa, and Philippines.  The most different category of Bulbul is Pycnonotus, of around 50 species – some of these bird species have also Inhabited in North America.

Appearance:

Pycnonotus cafer is about 8.3 inch long (Watling, 1983) and weighs between 27 and 47 grams (Lal and Thapliyal, 1982). It has a blackish top on its head, neck and throat. Its tail is black with a squeezing white tip, as well as its back and lower belly is pale greyish white. The red vented bulbul is easily recognised by its low crest with a squarish head look (Watling, 1983). The body is brownish with a scalable pattern whereas the head is black. Their vent is red. The rump is white, Having white tips on the black tail (Zia et al, 2014). Gender-based comparison they are medium-sized, long tail passerines. R vented bulbul is slightly heavier and much larger (length 20-23 cm; female weight 31-52 g, male weight 36-59 g). (Islam and William, 2000). Both sexes male and female are the same in looks; however, the male is a little heavier (Velde, 2002). It is commonly found in trees (Kumar and Bhatt, 2000) The nest is shaped like a cup, constructed using plant material that is remotely confined to the cobweb. It’s attached to a delicate material. Two to five pale pink to tough eggs are laid in it. Eggs are usually set apart with stripes and grayer spots, and there are between 2 to 3 broods per year.

Breeding:

Red vented bulbul breeds continuously, starting from early Feb to October. R vented bulbul shows different breeding activity in different countries, such as in Pakistan, late Feb-early Sep; India, Feb-Nov, with the highest in Feb to Oct. Simultaneously, the species introduced in the Southern Hemisphere display a contractual breeding season; in Fiji and Samoa, Nov-Jan (Islam and William, 2000). Many factors determine the mating behaviour of birds, like availability of food, predator – prey risk, site selection for breeding and nesting behaviour (Newton, 1998). Shifts in abiotic conditions are also due to the change in reproductive ecology (Hughes, 2000). Long-term experiments are expected to identify the changes (Sutherland, 1996; Newton, 1998; Thiollay, 2000). Red vented bulbul is found to be prevalent in agricultural lands, parks, reserves and forests. Recently two research studies have been performed on reproductive ecology of red vented bulbul in Islamabad and Mansehra, Pakistan (Zia et al., 2014; Awais et al., 2015). Studies indicate that breeding and nesting parameters, nesting location on trees, nesting form, clutch size, reproducing success and fledgling rate vary due to climate change or any other environmental factor (Bhatt and Kumar, 2001; Brooks, 2013; Manju and Sharma, 2013; Zia et al., 2014).

Status:

The status of Pycnonotus cafer is least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (IUCN Red List, 2013).

Threats and Protection:

Right now, the red bulbul is not considered to face any potential dangers (Bird life international, 2010). In the past, the red vented bulbul, similar to the numerous bulbuls, was kept as a cage bird. Luckily, this trend has been profoundly tempered, as it is the strange or unintentional arrival of cages birds that has attained a red bulb assailing such myriad nations beyond its immediate scope. Since it is a common bird species with an enormous local range, the red bulbul is not seen as endangered (Birdlife worldwide, 2010).

Role of Geographical Information System (GIS)

The Geographic Information System (GIS) has played a significant role in Ecology, Wildlife and Biogeography over the last decades. Significant recent research efforts have been related to some areas of GIS, in particular remote sensing. Remote sensing now regularly offers information about the environment on scales from regional to global.  a way of collecting, processing and visualising spatial data. Along with the related advances in computing facilities, GIS makes important contributions to biogeographical study (Haddad and Anderson, 2008). The multidimensional existence of biodiversity complicates the classification and assessment of biodiversity (Duro et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2017). A variety of indexes can be used to describe biodiversity. The most commonly used biodiversity index is the abundance of species, the distribution of locations present, but this does not reflect crucial details on the species composition that is often required for tasks such as the prioritisation of conservation sites. Sometimes there is a need for a comparatively general evaluation of key facets of biodiversity, and GIS can be a valuable component of those practises.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

Aim:

  • Investigate the behavioural ecology of Red Vented Bulbul in Tehsil Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan.

Objectives:

  1. To collect the information of food and habitat type preferences of Red Vented Bulbul.
  2. To investigate the spatial distribution of Red Vented Bulbul using GIS Technique.
  3. To assess the Breeding and Nesting behaviour of Red vented Bulbul.
  4. To check the distribution of red vented bulbul in mianwali
  5. To check the ecology of Red vented Bulbul.
  6. Ecological Modelling of Red vented bulbul
  7. Ecological Niche modelling of Red vented Bulbul.
  8. Species distribution Modelling of Red vented bulbul
  9. Arcgis 10.8, R statistical software.

 

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW:

Apart from the geography that flatlands and highlands are unevenly spread between the north and south of Pakistan, there are also a number of ecosystem varieties that sustain Pakistan’s surprisingly rich ecological diversity. As a result, numerous studies have recently been undertaken to explore this phenomenon in depth. Depending on the geographical significance and validity of the proposed study, a few of them have been described here.

(Kumar, 2010) examined the visual signals transmitted by displays and body movements and their role in contact in the Pycnonotus cafer (Red-Vented Bulbul). Evidences indicate that this bird used five kinds of visual cues for contact (namely mate selection display, welcoming display, warning display, crest posture and appealing display) and displayed three types of resting postures and shattered displays. Mate selection display was done to preserve a pair, when both interacted, one can use greeting display along with lower frequ

 

ency complicated vocalisations. The location of the crest appeared to change in various behavioural contexts; it was lifted upright in alert and recumbent mostly during greeting. fledglings/ Nestlings used complex begging gestures that involved gaping even without voice signals. The existence of a predator in the area of the nesting site, caused an alert along with an alarm call. The results of this study showed that gestures and movements are effective means of communicating in different social environments and were frequently accompanied by vocalisations, allowing them multi-component.

(Azin et al. 2008) carried out fieldworks in Kish Island, Iran, by moving along two sides, 1 kilometre long and Hundred metres wide in the southeast and east, and counting all of the birds, with special attention being paid to the Red-Vented Bulbuls. Direct observations were recorded with binoculars and telescopes. The Red-Vented Bulbuls recorded on that Island had melodic, song-like vocalisations, provided mainly in the early morning and evening, and quick loud, simplistic calls, particularly when eating. It has been stated that these birds use six forms of voice signals, including touch, roosting, warning, twittering, frustration and appealing.

(Bhattacharya and Paul, 2015) evaluated the nesting activity and parental control of the red vented bulbul was performed locally in Halisahar at two separate locations, one between human settlement the other, away from residences.  Both sexes took an important role in the selection of the site and the nesting process. In such birds, parental involvement was very prominent. The population of the red-vented bulbul in Halisahar has been found to be greater than the neighbouring regions. The explanation behind this sorting has yet to be examined.

(Zia et al. 2014) conducted a research on the breeding biology of Red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) was investigated in the Islamabad and Rawalpindi regions. More than   45 nests are located in the study site, from which 35 R vented Bulbul nests were found to be operational. The majority of active nests (43 per cent) were in the branch of trees, followed by the centre of the trees (29 per cent) and the peak of the trees (11 per cent). The chosen nest height (53 per cent) of the red vented bulbul was 1-2 metres from the ground. The vegetation matter used for bulbul nesting was Beri (31%) led by Guava (22 percent). Predation rates were just 9% in nestlings and 6% in eggs. Mating success in this study was measured as fine, that was 82% and 86% collectively for fledglings and eggs. nesting sites loss due to urbanization and pollution adversely affects the Red bulbul population.

(Thibault et al. 2018) Investigated the status of the red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer). This bird has been extensively spread across the Pacific Islands and is generally criticised for its effect on cultivation and habitats by dispersal of intrusive plant seeds and conflict with native wildlife. This study reviews all existing evidence on the effects and control of this invasive species and describes the goals. the study demonstrates that there are three types of effects linked with this species: plant injury, seed dispersion and fauna disturbance. We collected lists of 110 plant species eaten, 33 plant species spread, and 15 bird species in which the bulbul engages. Interestingly, these lists were primarily based on opportunistic findings rather than specific evaluations. Analysis outputs that concentrate on better ways to avoid or measure the impacts of the red bulbul remain rare. There have been relatively few reports exploring the possible beneficial effects of this bird, but only two examples of conservation steps taken against it. The above are needed to advise risk management, in particular on vulnerable remote islands where invaders and dispersal of the red bulbul are underway. Our analysis of the evidence finds no strong evidence for believing this bird to be among the most alien invasive bird on earth.

(Zohaib et al. 2021) conducted a research on the breeding and nesting behaviour of red vented bulbul has been researched in gardens, parks and agricultural fields in Okara district, Pakistan. A number of 69 nests were reported in the survey area; reproductive response was recorded in 51 active nests. Breeding nests were identified in parks (46 per cent) followed by orchards (28 per cent) and cultivated lands (27 percent). The highest number of active nests was located on branches (48 per cent) while nesting at centre, terminals as well as other plant locations were reported as 17 per cent, 10 per cent and 25 per cent respectively. The chosen height for nest building was 1-2m (58 per cent) followed by 2-3m (17 per cent), 0-1m (16 per cent), 3-4m (7 per cent) and 4-5m (1 percent). The bulbul likes to nest in northern white cedar (32 per cent) followed by guava (19 per cent), banyan (4 per cent), orange sweat (9 per cent), mango (9 per cent), babul (7 per cent), white mulberry (9 per cent), weeping fig (3 per cent) and date palm (3 percent). A number of 104 eggs under evaluation were hatched, 6 per cent of which fell out of the nest, 28 per cent of which were predated. The youngest success was the maximum in parks (65 per cent) compared to gardens (25 per cent) and farm areas (10 percent). It is reached the conclusion that the bulbul tended to build nests on the northern white cedar in parks. In comparison, breeding output was higher in parks relative to gardens and farm areas.

(Bates et al. 2014) conducted a research to check the foraging behavior of 2 sympatric invasive birds the the red bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis) were analysed to decide if they display behavioural or habitat clustering. They studied the ratio of finding food to protection activity of both populations at novel food sources, as well as the impact of overall effect foraging and the structure of the species on their activity. While myna and bulbul show similar behaviour patterns, the sites where they occur have been separated into habitats. However, fresh food stations also facilitated foraging at the risk of caution. Behaviors were not affected by size of the group, and intra-specific behaviors were more regular and more intense than inter-specific behaviors. These findings indicate that the two organisms reduce territorial encounters by occupying separate sites inside the same habitat and maximize the acquisition of food in new surroundings. Sympatric introduced species can prevent competitive exclusion if resource use decreases the amount of interaction.

(Nowakowski and Dulisz, 2019) evaluated that Red-vented Bulbul is an Asian species of birds listed as one of the 100 most invasive animal species. The reproduction of this bird (adults feed the fledglings) was observed in Costa Calma in 2018. For Europe this was the first breeding data of this genus. The first observations of the genus were made in Corralejo in 2003. A significant range of species enhancement was reported in Fuerteventura during the period 2013–2018. The population was also first reported in Valencia.

(Brooks, 2013) conducted a research in which data were recorded from a Citizen Science initiative to research the ecology, behaviour and evolution of the invasive species of Red-Vented Bulbuls in Texas. The most common habits are foraging (n 5 69), sleeping (n 5 45) and call (n 5 29). The total population has arisen in urban areas. Bulbuls ate fruit (n 5 5), berries (n 5 8 species), buds (n 5 4) and flowers (n 5 5); certain insects were included in the diet. 9 of the 20 species of known plants eaten are foreign species found inside the native habitat of the bulbul, six are invasive species found beyond the native range, and five were Texas species. The most popular of the 35 plant species perched in -bulbuls are bamboo, crape myrtle, edible fig, and tallow.  Bulbuls are not migrants; highest reports are in the summer months, with lower populations in October. General biology is comparable between Houston bulbul, native species in Asia and other invasive species in the Northern Hemisphere. This alien species is not a significant crop pest or disperser of crops, does not clash with native plants, and has not spread outside the Houston area of the USA.

(Amiot et al. 2007) evaluated the scale of morphological differentiation of mature birds were measured in 3 seasonal roles and 11 non-seasonal at leeward and windward. Their analysis showed (1) the existence of sexual dimorphism (2) that, when sexual dimorphism is regulated, 9 non-seasonal characteristics varied significantly among Leeward and windward locations; (3) that such semi character define classes of geography proximal locations, particularly in males; and (4) that identification by the most meaningful character, the bill, also clearly distinguishes them. These findings suggest a very swift morphological differentiation, especially in the size of the bill, in the species of birds added in less than ten decades. They propose that dietary variations may partly explain this variation.

(Watling, 1983) investigated the reproduction biology of the Bulbul in Fiji. the Red vented bulbul has a distinctive reproductive cycle that occurs mostly during rains. The Bulbul has an average clutch size of 2.5. There is still a high rate of mortality of eggs and nestling; 72% of eggs laying do not hatched and 53% of nestlings do not succeed. Bulbuls have a long period of maternal support for young children and are unlikely to pose more than once brood in a season. Fledgling survival tends to be a positive thing, and the annual recruiting rate is likely about 30%, although it was significantly lower in one year.

(Salem, 2003) conducted a study on GIS applications to describes topics related to (a) need for diversity data and repositories, (b) the value of community information policies, and (c) the use of GIS as a method to track ecosystems, and (d) the research paper of the GIS-based solution to endangered arboreal organisms in Egypt. The layer review of the map of endangered plant species shall be added to the lists of national parks. The production is threefold: (a) a full inventory of endangered arboreal organisms as set out in the Egyptian Plant IUCN Red Guide. (b) the comparative importance index in each of the national parks (proposed and declared) to the protection of biodiversity of endangered arboreal wildlife species in Egypt; (c) a distance map that defines areas in most need of protection; and (d) an overview of the correlation between both the position of arboreal species and the location of regional crucial importance.

(Mairota et al. 2015) evaluated the information regards spatial information to simply provide data on landscape quality (e.g., quantity, specification) and performance (e.g., composition, range of single plant species, habitat types and/or populations, persistence) across a variety of spatial specifications and spatial frequencies is highly demanded after in environmental management. However, there are a variety of troublesome problems. Challenge the efficient and accurate use of those data and techniques. We discuss these things as a support for the development of a shared language, structure and suite of research methods among environmental scientists, spatial data experts and interested parties (sustainability managers) on the surface, and rapidly adapt scientific and applied developments that provide opportunity to socialise these challenges. Trying to reconcile the various stakeholder views and needs would enhance the timely supply of accurate information regarding the current and evolving distribution of ecosystems in order to allow successful environmental management.

3.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

The current research will be conducted in Tehsil Mianwali, having 8 sites to check the Ecology of Red-Vented Bulbul by using GIS-based technique. All GIS work will be performed using ArcGIS 10.8. The study will be performed in three steps.

STUDY AREA:

The current investigation will be directed in Mianwali Tehsil. The Mianwali is situated in the northwest of Punjab province, Pakistan. This area is filling in as a borderline between Province of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Mianwali region covers an area of 5, 840 square kilometres (2, 250 sq. mi). The area in north is a continuation of the Pothohar Plateau and the Kohistan-e-Namak. Southern side of the region is a piece of Thal Desert while Indus river flow through the area. Mianwali area bears harsh climatic conditions, with a long and hot summer season and cold, dry winters. Summer range is extended from May to September and winter lasts from November till February. June is the hottest month with normal temperatures of 42 °C (most elevated recorded temperature 52 °C); in winter December and January month to month normal temperatures can be as low as 3 to 4 °C.

MATERIAL:

Following materials will be used for study:

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:                                                                                    

Suitable statistical analysis will be performed to analyze the information on different parts of the ecology of red vented bulbul in Mianwali, Pakistan utilizing MegaStat (Statistical Software). A level of significance of 5% will be utilized for statistical significance.

ECOLOGY OF RED VENTED BULBUL (PYCONONOTUS CAFER) BY GIS MAPPING TECHNIQUE IN DISTRICT MIANWALI, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

  1. INTRODUCTION:

Pycnonotidae (bulbuls, greenbuls; class Aves, order Passeriformes) are group of medium-sized, dim, earthy colored and olive winged birds, with yellow, red, white, or dark regions. They have short to medium-length, flimsy, imperceptibly twisted bills, with rounded wings, and truly long tails. With hair-like neck plumes, rictal bristles, with lovely peak on certain species. They are basically arboreal, populating backwoods and trained terrains, nest in trees and on the ground. Among different types of bulbuls, the Hypsipetes have longer wings. Bulbuls are around 120 sorts of medium-sized, perching feathered birds, passed on among 15 genera, and making up the family Pycnonotidae, found in Africa, southern Asia, the Philippines, and the Moluccas. The most different class of Bulbul is Pycnonotus, with around 50 species – a portion of these bird varieties have likewise gotten comfortable Australia and North America.”

Appearance:

Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul) is about 8.25inch long (Berger, 1972) and weighs is between the 26 and 45 grams (Long, 1981). It has blackish top on head, neck and throat. Its tail is dark in concealing with a tightening white tip, anyway its backside and lower gut is pale grayish white. The under-tail coverts are dark red in concealing. (Zia et al, 2014). The little bird is similar to the adult except for there is some earthy colored edging on the tufts (Hawaii Audubon Society, 1993). Genders comparative, medium-sized, long tail passerines. Red-vented Bulbul is a lot heavier and somewhat greater (supreme length 20-23 cm; mass of male 36-59 g, of female 31-52 g. (William and islam, 2000). The female and male are same in appearance; nonetheless, the male is somewhat bigger, (Velde, 2002). It is normally found in trees (Kumar and Bhatt, 2000) The nest is cup shape, built by utilizing plant matter that remotely limited with cobweb. It is fixed with fragile material. In it are laid two to five pale pink to ruddy eggs. The eggs are set apart with streaks and hazier spots normally, there are around a 2 to 3 broods each year.

Breeding:

Red vented bulbul bread consistently, while cresting from early Jan to Oct. Broadened reproducing season moreover found in nearby degrees, all the more regularly, after and before stormy period of rainstorm, For example, in Pakistan, late Feb-early Sep; in India, Feb to Nov, with greatest in Feb and Oct. Alternately, introduced species in Southern Hemisphere show contracted breeding season; in Fiji and Samoa, Nov-Jan. (Islam and William, 2000). Pycnonotuscafer (red-vented bulbuls) are known to rearing all through year (Hawaii Audubon Society, 1993), most noteworthy pace of rearing among January and October (Berger, 1981). This winged creature can have up to three broods each season (Long, 1981). At any one time around 2 to 4 eggs are laid (Hawaii Audubon Society, 1993). The eggs of the bulbul is oval, with ground concealing pinkish white with minimal red earthy colored hued spots (zia et.al,2013). The nest is cup like and made of rootlets and sometimes spider webs (Long, 1981). The hatching time length is about 14 days (Berger, 1981: Shehata, 1996).

Status:

Pycnonotus cafer is Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (IUCN Red List, 2010).

Threats and Protection:

Right now, red vented bulbul isn’t known to confront any significant dangers (Bird life international, 2010). In the past the red-vented bulbul, close by various bulbuls, was kept as a cage pet. Fortunately this movement has been profoundly diminished, as it is the coincidental or purposeful arrival of cage birds that has achieved the red-vented bulbul assaulting such countless nations outside of its nearby reach (Global intrusive species database,2010).

As it is a typical bird type with an enormous assortment and has such a tremendous local range, the red-vented bulbul isn’t seen as endangered (Birdlife worldwide, 2010).

Role of Geographical Information System (GIS)

Geographical information science (GIS) has played an increasing role in biogeography over the last decade. Considerable recent research activity has been associated with certain aspects of GIS, notably remote sensing. Remote sensing now routinely provides environmental information at scales from the local to global and geographical information systems provide, among other things, a means to store, analyse and visualize spatial data. Together with associated advancements in computational facilities, GIS is making major contributions to bio geographical research (Anderson, 2008). The multifaceted nature of biodiversity complicates its characterization and measurement. Many indices may be used to represent biodiversity (Duro et al., 2007; Yue et al., 2007). The most widely used index of biodiversity is species richness, the number of species present, although this does not convey key information on the composition of species which is sometimes needed for activities such as the prioritization of sites for conservation. Often there is a desire to have relatively general assessments of key aspects of biodiversity and GIS may be a useful component to such activities (Gontier et al., 2006).

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

Aim:

  • To investigate the ecology and behaviour of red vented bulbul in District Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan.

Objectives:

  1. To gather information on habitat and food.
  2. To gather information on population distribution and diversity by GIS mapping technique.
  3. To gather information on nesting sites and nesting area.
  4. To gather information on breeding biology.
  5. To gather information on negative impact of specie on crops andother plants and animal species.

 

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW:

RED VENTED BULBUL: GIS IMPORTANCE AND ITS APPLICATION

Appearance:

Red-vented bulbul is weighed around 26 to 45 grams and length is about 8.25 inches. For the most part, it has peak and dark in shading, with a white rear end and mid-region and is dark red under the tail coverts. The adolescent juvenile is similar to adults except for there is some caramel edging on the plumes. The red-vented bulbul is bigger in size than the red-whiskered bulbul (P. jocosus).

The female and male are same in appearance, however male is marginally bigger than female (Stuart and Stuart, 1999; in Vander and Velde, 2002). It is ordinarily found in trees (Kumar and Bhatt, 2000), a speedy flyer with a flight that is conspicuous by being to some bouncy as opposed to even.” (Vander Velde, 2002) The cup molded nest of the bulbul is built of plant matter. It is fixed with sensitive material. In nest bulbul laid two to five pale pink to rosy eggs. The eggs are set apart with streaks and darker spots. There are much of the time 2 to 3 broods each year.

Habitat:

Pycnonotus cafer involve different sites, from backwoods to gardens and metropolitan parks. Most ordinarily, found in zones with greenery and optional turn of events, where it develops its nest. Leaning toward the tree cavities and profundity of hedges as opposed to open branches, on account of its wellbeing. (3) (8). They are additionally present in rural spot. (Dept. of Agriculture – WA).

Behavior:

The Red-vented Bulbul, is extensively present all through the Indian sub-continent, they are partitioned into 7 races. It is an arboreal occupant bird, routinely found in forests and gardens. It is non-territorial, and can be seen in large flocks and pairs. In the current assessment, data have been gathered on the foraging behavior of Red-vented Bulbul, and motivation behind this investigation is to break down the financial significance of Red Vented Bulbul, in term of loss, assuming any, it causes to farming and cultivation. The examination was finished from April 1995 to April 1997 in and around Gurukul Kangri University campus, Haridwar (78°8’E 29°55’N), India. Basic trees and shrubberies of this rural region comprises ClerodendronindicumPolyalthealongifolia, Hibiscus sp., Mangiferaindica, Rosa spp., Pithecellobium dulce, Litchi chinensis and some different species. The examination site was visited day break to nightfall and once in seven days.

Foraging behavior of (Pycnonotus cafer) in Haridwar, India Dinesh bhatt and Anil kumar recognitions were made on feeding behavior. Right when a solitary individual, gathering or pair was seen feeding, it was considered as one recognition. In the non-rearing season, groups of 8 to 24 individual evidently fed together, while in the breading season birds were found in little rushes or either alone (two to five individual). In the examination zone 17 sorts of plant species were used as a food. Out of these plants, the most commonly fruit was used is Solanum torvum (17.0% of the all outs perception). The second and third inclination of Red Vented Bulbul were the leaves of Medicago sativa and mature fruit of Lantana camara, separately. Numerous perceptions were made on feeding behavior, out of 377 perceptions, 55.9% incorporated the use of ripe fruits, 17.0% unripe fruit, 13.8% leaves and 13.8% nectar. Inspite of the way that only 22.7% of each ripened fruit were from refined plants, this could be monetarily benefecial if much number of flying creatures were available. It gives that, anyway birds were living in rural zone, they were still depend upon wild plant species for sustenance when contrasted with distinctive frugivorous bird species, in this way making lesser damage to human developed yields. In any case, the red vented bulbul takes part to the dispersal of seeds of unwanted bushes, for instance, Solanum torvum, Lantana camara, whose fruit were shaped 27% of the noticed eating regimen schedule.

A significant recognition on the searching conduct of this bird is that at some point, it benefits from the nectar of a some of plants, including the cotton tree (Bombax ceiba), Bottlebrush, (Callistemon utilis) and Banana (Musa paradisiaca). Recently (Parasharya et.al, 1995) announced that this specie is not a serious pest of sorghum crops. The general abundance of this species among feeding birds was low (4.34%). In the current examination, Red-vented Bulbuls were likewise noticed profiting by different animal species (absolute 88 perceptions). These were according to the accompanying; including mosquitos and mayflies (got in flight) and these are little size insects, dipteran hatchlings, ants, aphids, (56.8%); large insects, including cockroaches, crickets, grasshoppers, winged termites, (37.5%); vertebrates (seven to nine cm long), including skinks, house reptiles, (5.7%).Birds were likewise observed to feed upon over ripe fruit in trash and disposed sweets. Bulbuls are basic frugivores and seed dispersers of open auxiliary vegetation all through tropical and subtropical Asia (Lever 1987, Corlett 1998). Up to now almost little information was accessible on the foraging behavior of the Red-vented Bulbul (Parasharya et.al, 1995; Dhamke ,1997). An intriguing perception was the usage of leaves of Medicago sativa in light of the fact that leaf use is uncommon in bulbul.

Red-vented Bulbuls get food from petals of the flower of Tecomellaundulata, Bauhinia variegata and Pisum sativum in a developed territory outside the investigation locale. Another investigation directed by S. Rajakaruna and S. Wickramasinghe in 2012 at the premises of Faculty of Applied sciences, Rajarata school of Sri Lanka and in the forest patch that is arranged close and that woodland is dry land region (lat. 8° 19′ 60″ N/Lon. 80° 31′ 0″ E), from January, 2011 to May, 2011 to recognize the impacts of feeding behavior of the Red-vented Bulbul on the chose environment. It is a typical inhabitant of trees, non-territorial and can happen in pair or in significant gatherings. Perception were taken each day, along the cut across of 50 m width and 300 m long by utilizing the scan sampling method. No perceptions were made during heavy rains. For each foraging attempt, microhabitat feature, for instance, height over the ground, plant species used for food and food substrate were recorded. According to the investigation results, 59% of burned-through food was insects, 22% fruits and other were under 5%. The prevailing plant utilized for food was Azadirachtaindica and it was utilized 34.93% and plant utilized for resting is Schleicheraoleosa and it was 45.7%. The examination distinguished the feeding nature of Red Vented Bulbul and it might be used for ecosystem management, and for the conservation of plants and bird species in the Mihinthale Sanctuary.

Acoustic communication:

Another investigation was done that manages acoustic communication in the Pycnonotuscafer. This species communicates vocal signals that are profoundly factor can be arranged reliant on their setting of creation and acoustical highlights. Bulbul sang all the year and most songs were generalized and discrete. The piece of tunes were phrases with minor essential basic assortments of parts that were trailed by a temporal gap (3 to 12 s). Most strophes were made out of two to six segments that were not comparative in structure with range between 0.98 to 4.5 kHz. The biological capacity of the song is to keep up pair bonds and to synchronize reproducing exercises. Various kinds of setting explicit calls were recognized. They conveyed Type-II alert calls,(narrow frequency range, 1.37 to 3.39 kHz) under high predation tension and Type-I alarm calls (brisk and wide-band, 1.03 to 6.36 kHz) under low predation tension. Roosting calls were brisk and wide-band signals resemble Type-I alarm calls. Three kinds of contact calls were recorded in little birds. Welcome calls and flight calls were made out of complex expressions, like tune, yet were short and used for proximate capacity (Kumar,2004).

(Munoz and Brandstatter et.al, 2015) found a communication network between red-vented bulbuls and essential mynas in Mo’orea, French Polynesia. Mynas responded to bulbul alarm calls,However, bulbuls didn’t respond to myna alarm calls. Hence, listening covertly is awry in this structure. Bulbuls responded to explicit alarm calls by increment in the pace of flights near the speaker, which shows that individual are advancing toward the speaker maybe to check outwardly the degree of threat that a predator utilize. Avian predators on Mo’orea incorporate feral cats, (Felis domesticus), rodents (rattus, Rattus exulans) and swamp harriers (Circus approximans), (Blanvillain et.al, 2003). Inspite that both, the mynas and bulbuls being of tantamount sizes, the two species may not fall prey comparatively to all predators, a model that could prompt awry snoopping (Magrath et.al, 2009). We watched mynas both in trees and on the ground and, thusly, may be frail against all the recently referenced predatorss. By differentiating, we generally notice bulbuls to remain in trees; bulbuls might be defenseless on a very basic level to flying predators, for instance, swamp harriers

The Nest:

An examination which was directed by Rao and ojha et.al in 2011 found that during reproducing season both guardians take an interest in the nest development. P. cafer builds up the nest at the intersection of the bifurcated or trifurcated branch or on some comparable substrate to get a firm help at the base. Eventually P. cafer builds up the nest at the intersection where four to five branches meet and cross each other. For nest development it leans towards the material like as smooth and little branches, grasses and herbs. It is likewise seen that P. cafer assemble nest with polythene fiber. Bulbul develop their nest at different statures of trees. Red-vented Bulbul by and large picks 2.0 to 3.5 m. height for nest development, yet they don’t give need toward low tallness for instance < 1.0 m.

Red-vented bulbul-fabricated nest even on same plant or on various plants at various statures. It prefers to make nest on the forks of the trees (44%), followed by center (27%of the trees when contrasted with upper most part (16%) of the trees (Zia and Ansari et.al, 2014). Balakrishnan (2010) announced that dark bulbul makes nest in the focal point of the trees. In present examination level of successful nest (43%) were more in the fork of the trees and afterward in focal point of the trees as compared with the nest present on the top (11%) of the trees. The level of nest failure was high when the nest was based on the most height of the trees (30%) than in the middle of trees (20%). The data about the tallness of the nest from ground exhibits that favored tallness (53%) by red-vented bulbul was one to two meters as compared with top of the trees (11%with height two to three meters. Medium estimated prickly tree was favored by Red-vented bulbul for nest development in the examination area. Balakrishnan (2010) reported that the nest was not evenly distributed on the plants. The failure of the nest was more on top height than middle and lower spots of the tree. It was seen that most nest, previously or after development, demolished because of heavy rain fall, weight of predators and strong wind.

Some key exercises were recorded by (Narayana K and Swamy et.al, 2017) using D 90 SLR camera (400 mm point of convergence). The estimation of communication pose (Kumar, 2010). Behavior, various characteristics and parts of various displays were analyzed by utilizing photos. For the estimation of rise of the peak, a flat line was assumed control over the focal point of eye and proximal finish of upper mandible. One vertical line experiencing the apex of crest and focal point of eye. The angle was taken by top up position and top down position (0 to 5°Lowest and up to 105° generally important) Red-vented Bulbul dynamic nest site was spotted on thirteenth May 2013 out of an old building of our University campus. On 22nd May 2013, a chick that was tumbled down from the nest, saved and again positioned there. A sum of 43 output perceptions were noted during the 09:00 hr to 18:00 hr. Among the recorded exercises, guardians sustain to chick was high 27.9% sought after by calling 16.3%, moving and perching 14.0%, flying and guarding 9.3%, begging 4.7% and trimming and resting 2.3%. The bulbul exercises for instance top position and point down peak position (n=9), Middle peak position (n=17) and Up peak position (n=7). The chick was secured at 09:54 hr and set back in the nest at 09:59 hr. The parent bulbul visited the nest at 10:17 hr and took off with the chick to new zone, since various kinds of birds didn’t acknowledge to stay in their nest on account of predation (Kumar, 2010). In this current examination, a predator bird Spotted Owlet nest was seen around 15 m separated from our focused on Red-vented Bulbul nest site. During this situation they alarmed the chick by giving persistent calls as regularly, this bird can scan 275°-300° (Kumar 2010; Martin 2007). Begging behavior was seen in the chick after the appearance of parents at the new region on the ground. The chick extended their neck, rippled the wings and requested the food. The chicks opened their mouths when the parent visiting the nest with food, without guardians (between two continuing visits), they made begging calls and other display behavior which was seen only two times (4.7%) at 12:21 hr. furthermore, 12:23 hr.

Reproduction of red vented bulbul:

Current investigation results exhibited that the reproducing time of the Red-vented Bulbul begins from May to August with the most extreme rearing exercises are in June and July however, different authors noted particular period starting with one zone then onto the next in the range of the species. In general, reproducing time of the Red-vented Bulbul is accounted for from April to September with a top in August–September in BalaramAmbaji Wildlife Sanctuary Gujarat (Prajapati et.al,2011). According to (Rao et.al, 2013), this specie had reproducing season from March to October with top rearing exercises in September in Sikar Region, India.

Reproduction:

Reproducing season start from March to May in Haryana (Manju and Sharma 2013). They infer that in the examination region Red-vented Bulbul didn’t choose any man-made structure due to the way that the quality and measure of the vegetation gave adequate prime living space. In the examination region, P. cafer settled on five diverse plant species with normal stature of 1.9 m. The aftereffect of this examination is like the discoveries of (Zia et, al. 2013) who uncovered that the species supported nesting over the ground at tallness between 1–4m. Additionally, tallness of nest in bushes was around 2–3 m. The Nests comprised of plastic particulates, twigs, rootlets, metal wires and grasses. As demonstrated by (Prajapati et.al, 2011), the species chose 12 different plant species, regularly, at a tallness of 1.5–3.0 m yet didn’t uphold nesting at a stature under 1.0 m. In Sikar Region, nest was in 4 diverse plant species, anyway some were on man-made structures, for instance, wires and electricity boxes (Manju and Sharma 2013). In Haryana, nest was set on 12 diverse plant species at a tallness of 2.0–3.5 m (Rao et.al, 2013).

In Rawalpindi Islamabad Red-vented Bulbul got comfortable five particular plant species, including Psidium guajava, Zizyphusnummularia, Dodoneaviscosa, Dalbergia sissoo, and Phoenix dactylifera (Zia et.al, 2013). The eggs of Red-vented Bulbul have spots of hazier red with pale pinkish shading and they are thick at the wide end. clutch size of Red-vented Bulbul in the examination region was 2.3 range between 1–3, somewhat lower than the 2–3 found. (Prajapati et, al.2011; Manju and Sharma 2013 and Rao et.al, 2013). Normal clutch proportion of Red Vented Bulbul was 2.5, ranges between 1–4 (Zia et.al, 2013). The assortment in clutch size is seemed, by all accounts, to be associated with food accessibility for the nestling, a greater clutch size is laid when such food is sufficent (Vijayan, 1980). Ordinary egg broadness and length assessed by (Prajapati et.al, 2011) was 20.0 and 16.6 mm in Balaram-Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary Gujarat, by and large greater than (Rao et.al,2013) the recorded length and broadness of (Podoces,2014) 18.8 and 14.6 mm in Sikar Region, generally smaller when compared with the record of Tehsil Mansehra. Invesment in egg size might be related with the all outs energy interest for endurance, on the female versus the pre-settling energy commitment from sustenance; low input, smaller and less eggs, however high input more and greater eggs. The record of nesting and hatching periods marginally not quite the same as other examination in the species reproducing conveyance, nestling time of 12 days and a hatching time of 14 days. (Prajapati et.al, 2011) recorded a hatching time of 11–14 days. (Manju and Sharma, 2013) recorded a settling season of 14 days and hatching time of 9–12 days. The brooding time length recorded by (Rao et.al, 2013) was 11–13 days while settling period was 12 days.

Nesting and brooding periods recorded by (Zia et.al, 2013) were 11–13 days. The distinction in hatching and settling periods depend on the quantity of young in brood, accessible food assets, age of guardians and nest tallness (Dhanda and Dhindsa,1998). Rearing achievement recorded in study site was moderately higher (59.4% of nest achievement and incubating accomplishment of 55.6%) when contrasted with the outcome record of various authors about reproducing distribution of Red Vented Bulbul (Prajapati et.al, 2011) recorded nest accomplishment of 37% and egg achievement of 53%, Similarly, (Rao et, al. 2013) recorded nest accomplishment of 54% egg achievement of 50%. As a result of heavy rain and high predation, rearing execution recorded in study site was marginally diminished. The incredible nest achievement and egg accomplishment in the examination zone were likely a direct result of good vegetation and food sources. In the examination zone, nest position, natural factor, food and settling material were good moderate reproducing accomplishment of P. cafer in the examination region.

An investigation directed in the yard arranged in the city of Bikaner (28°N latitude and 73°18’E longitudes), Rajasthan, on a little Araucaria tree planted in a pot where the bulbul built up its nest. Both the female and male took an interest in the occasion. The clutch size was of a 2 to 3 eggs, which hatched in 14-15 days. Female brought the feed for the energetic chicks which appeared to be consistently hungry. Mostly, the food contained little insects and their hatchlings which clearly was snatched from nearby plantation. After hatching the youthful one created to their full size in around 15 days. It was seen that the male looked into guarding the nest and the off springs. Red vented bulbul was among the intruders which endeavored to assault the nest other than the crows. An immense finding was that the nest was reused by the adults for laying eggs. During the time of around more than two months, the nest was used threefold by a similar couple; first clutch size was of three while the accompanying one had 2 eggs all at once. The first group of youthful ones incubated were predated by the crow anyway the chicks which brought forth from the subsequent two grew up to take off (Srivastava,2012).

Reproducing execution of the Red-vented Bulbul was inspected in Sikar territory, Rajasthan state during March, 2010 to October, 2011. The number of occupants of P. cafer was more found in human living space than the non-human domain of the assessment district. This is a typical rearing flying creature here. During study period hard and fast 28 nest were viewed. Rearing period was seen from March to October from 2010 to 2011. P. cafer incline toward various plant species as a settling site, it likewise favors leafy, little and thick bushes for the settling. It is found that the incubating accomplishment was 50 %, settling accomplishment was 18 % and nestling achievement was 36 %. It is found that reproducing execution of the Red-vented Bulbul here was low. Clarifications behind the low reproducing execution are a direct result of low food accessibility, predation, starvation and desert ecological conditions (Rao and Ojha et.al, 2011).

As Pest:

Pycnonotus cafer is accounted for to harm beans, fruits, tomatoes, peas and ripe fruits, for instance bananas and some other soft fruits, (Dept. of Agriculture – WA undated). They may similarly help in the spread of seeds of different prominent species. The red-vented bulbul is ordinarily accused for three characterizations of negative impacts, for the most part related to its distinctive food that includes berries and fruits (Islam and Williams, 2000; Brooks, 2013) and buds, flower, insects and little reptiles (Vander velde,2002). Harm to developed plants is the most routinely declared impact of the red-vented bulbul in its outsider reach. The red-vented bulbul is additionally a dangerous seed disperser.

The red-vented bulbul has been represented to make harm something like 52 plant species. Identified with 33% (17 species) being decorative plant species and with 25 families with 67% (35 species) being food plants. The red-vented bulbul sway seems, by all accounts, to be not kidding particularly on Oahu (Hawaii), Walker (2008) declared them eating a few kinds of Fruits vegetables and flowers, prompting critical financial loss. The assessment of the loss to Oahu’s Orchid industry in one year (1989) was $300,000 (Fox, 2011) when the red-vented bulbul along with the Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonicus) ruin up to 75% of Hawaiian orchid and anthurium plantation (Cummings et.al, 1994). In New Caledonia, imperative impacts have been recorded for a couple of harvests and plant nurseries (Metzdorf and Brescia, 2008) with up to 35% losses (Caplong and Barjon, 2010). On the other hands the red-vented bulbul isn’t seen as a agricultural pest in Fiji (Watling, 1979), nor in Houston (Texas, USA) where it was found to essentially eat presented tropical plant species (Brooks, 2013).

The red-vented bulbul can spread the seeds of at any rate 33 plant species from 25 families. Among these species, 30% are seen as outsider (10 species) and 42% invasive (14 species) in the external regions. We found records of simply a solitary endemic (Coprosmataitensis, Tahiti) and eight Fdeso neighborhood species that are spread by red vented bulbul (Spotswood et.al, 2012). The red-vented bulbul is seen as an imperative vector of the intrusive tree Miconiacalvescens in Tahiti (Meyer, 1996) and can possibly dissipate seven other intrusive plant species in French Polynesia including Lantana camara (Spotswood et.al, 2012; 2013).

Its ability to scatter Miconia and Lantana isn’t simply because of the red-vented bulbul in any case, various species, both neighborhood and outsider furthermore dissipate seeds of these plants, and the tendency of the red-vented bulbul for the seed scattering of these plants changes here and there. Think about a model, the specie of silvereye (Zosterops lateralis) likewise scatter these seeds in Tahiti, anyway in Moorea the endemic fruit dove (Ptilinopuspurpuralis) dissipates seeds of these outsider plants. The red-vented bulbul having role in to the spread of essential homesteader weeds, in Fiji (Watling, 1979). In New Caledonia, red vented bulbul is associated with spreading seeds of another intrusive species: Schinus terebinthifolius, as typically viewed profiting by the fruits of these plants. (Spotswood et.al, 2012; Thouzeau-Fonseca 2013).

In the Middle East, cross fertilization between the fascinating red-vented bulbul and 3 firmly related nearby species, white-cheeked bulbul, (P. leucogenys); the white-eared bulbul (P. leucotis) and the yellow-vented bulbul, P. xanthopygos) is accounted for as a likely danger for nearby bulbuls (Khan, 1993; Nation et.al, 1997; Gregory, 2005: Azin et.al, 2008; Khamis, 2010). Red-vented bulbuls in Tahiti, be that as it may, have been found to convey the zoonotic sickness Chlamydia sp. (Blanvillain et.al, 2013).

On Oahu (Hawaii), the red-vented bulbul straightforwardly predates the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) prompts an incited shading changes against the orange transform in the monarch (Stimson and Berman, 1990). Following ten years, some authors announced a predation move to the hatchlings, prompting an overall lowering in sufficient number of the butterfly (Stimson and Kasuya, 2000). In Tahiti, red vented bulbul saw as a threat to the Tahiti monarch (Pomareanigra), a critically endangered and an endemic passerine, through challenge for nest site and spot to live (Blanvillain et.al, 2003).In Fiji, a couple of authors have uncovered red-vented bulbuls demonstrating rivalry and forceful conduct for food assets towards other passerine specie (Pernetta and Watling, 1978; Williams, 2011).However, it is suspected that the perception about the constrainment of local birds species to forest zone was essentially a result of environment misfortune rather than the forceful conduct of the red-vented bulbul in Fiji, (Watling, 1979). On Tutuila, it is explored that bulbuls rivaled two passerine species for food assets. (Sherman and Fall, 2010).

As of late, Discussion has thrived about deficiencies in the shortsighted “worst invasive species” approach and its overall scale. Here we investigate the status of the red-vented bulbul, an Asian passerine bird. This species has been introduced by and large across Pacific islands and is regularly accused for its consequences for cultivating and biodiversity by methods for dispersal of invasive plant seeds and because of rivalry with nearby fauna. The red-vented bulbul has now chosen islands and in seven territory territories outside its nearby reach. We exhibit that three classes of effects are connected with this species: disturbance of fauna, plant harm and seed dispersal. We arrange the list of plant species consumed by bulbul, 33 plant 31 species scattered, and 15 sorts of bird that this bulbul cooperate with. Examination yield that accentuation on better ways to deal with stop or measure the impacts of the red-vented bulbul stay scare. References about examining expected beneficial outcomes of this species are not many and only two instances of the administration activities against it. Our assessment of the writing found no away from for survey this species as one of the “world worst” invasive alien species (Thibault and Vidal, et.al,2013).

3.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

The current research will be conducted in district Mianwali by using GIS-based habitat model will be tested to perform habitat predictions for a selected specie. All GIS work will be performed using ArcGIS 9.1. The  study will be performed in three steps. First of all, three different models (resulting in three habitat suitability maps) will be built for three different extents. The models will be based on correlating a set of environmental variables with observation data for one species. Secondly, an evaluation of the models will be performed through validation (cf. testing the accuracy of the model) and comparison in order to determine which one will be performing best for the purpose of the study. Finally, the selected model will be applied on a fourth extent in a physical planning situation to quantify and assess potential habitat loss. For that purpose, the model will be applied on a planning scenario, comparing the results of the habitat model before development (current situation) and after development (with the changes the scenario imposed on the variables used in the model).

STUDY AREA:

The current investigation will be directed in Mianwali district. The Mianwali District is situated in the northwest of Punjab province, Pakistan. This area is filling in as a borderline between Province of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Mianwali region covers an area of 5, 840 square kilometers (2, 250 sq mi). The area in north is a continuation of the Pothohar Plateau and the Kohistan-e-Namak. Southern side of the region is a piece of Thal Desert while Indus river flow through the area. Occupants of Mianwali display the mixed culture of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. Mianwali area bears harsh climatic conditions, with a long and hot summer season and cold, dry winters. Summer range is extended from May to September and winter lasts from November till February. June is the hottest month with normal temperatures of 42 °C (most elevated recorded temperature 52 °C); in winter December and January month to month normal temperatures can be as low as 3 to 4 °C. The mean precipi

MATERIAL:

Following materials will be used for study:

1-Binocular

2-Data sheet

3-pen

4-pencil

5-camera

6-slide calipers

7-Note books

8-Balance

9-Measuring tape, and so on.

10- For data analysis Microsoft Excel programming will use tation in the region is around 385 mm.

STUDYDESIGN:

The current examination will be carried from May 2020 to April 2021 to investigate the ecology of red vented bulbul in the zone of district Mianwali. Information on behavior and ecology of red vented bulbul will recorded from the examination zone. A wide range of field methodologies will be applied through various phases of study. These procedures are completely partitioned into two classes.

First direct field observation and secondly information will be gathered from the local community, for instance: data from local occupants (Meetings with local individuals) farmers, local residents and others who know about birds, (particularly of red vented bulbul) will likewise be met about the bird diversity of the examination zone. The main focus will be made by visiting study site. Observations will be made on regular basis or twice per week according to requirement. During the collection of information every single tree, edges and corners of the walls will be carefully checked.

The remembering the occurrence and accessibility we made five investigation sites of Mianwali areas. Besides these assigned locales will be separated into various environment types as potential sites for the red vented bulbul. In such manner three particular living space sorts of red vented bulbul will be recognized in the examination region including;

Cultivated crop fields and related natural vegetation on boundaries.

Open lands and related natural vegetation.

For living space inclination and related biotic angles, botanical study of all unmistakable plant species for these specific chose destinations will be directed by utilizing quadrate strategy, size of quadrate will be 100 meters x 100 m for trees, 10 meters x 10 m for bushes and herbs/grasses.

 

TARGET POPULATION:

Following areas will be surveyed:

 

  • ChittaWatta,Mianwali,Punjab,Pakistan 32.6720753855166,71.666993319489
  • Chidru,Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan 32.54628507352669, 71.7748337794032
  • MusaKhel,Mianwali,Punjab, Pakistan 32.6339684853336, 71.739694560671
  • Marmandi Mianwali Punjab, Pakistan 32.60007135776794, 71.7558538858682
  • NamalLake,Mianwali,Punjab,Pakistan 32.6702179191125, 71.810427962210

 

DATACOLLECTION:

The most extreme need will be to utilize broad methodology for assortment of information, there visual hints as well as the calls of the concerned species will be recorded. Depending upon the pitch of calls, the distance of calling birds will be assessed from the eyewitnesses. Perching trees will be screened when the red vented bulbul made takeoff in early morning or hopped on the trees or other presence impressions like, droppings under the tree or leaves/or feathers under the tree will be additionally taken note. Night review will be additionally made after dusk in a month utilizing a light to be acquainted with the perching conduct around evening time. Broad methodologies like direct (locating) and indirect (calls, feathers, fecal pellets) and presence of the birds or it’s such an impressions and plumes inside a distance of 50-100 m from the transect will be noted. Nest of the concerned species will be found by following the individual red vented bulbul conveying settling material or food to the nest, or dependent on territorial gestures. Quality systems will be utilized during nest assessment to limit such a bothering to birds, and habitat, to overcome observer incited impacts.After finding active nest (nest with a female or eggs), it will be set apart by Global positioning system navigator utilizing Smartphone based Google maps and designated a particular number. Pinned nests will be visited day by day by a gathering of three people, three to multiple times in seven days during early mornings and evening from September to December, and after short stretches, from egg lying till fledging; nest will be visited on consistent schedule.

Data sheets containing all the recorded data, for example, rearing season, nest size and structure, vegetation at nest site, clutch size, brooding period and hatching success will be looked after reliably. Line based transect visits will be started before the beginning of reproducing season from May 2020 to September 2020 to record the information on various rearing aspects of red vented bulbul which incorporated the dates of first and last egg laying, number of eggs, shape, color and morphological pattern of eggs, date of hatching, number of successful incubated eggs, measurements of eggs, nest geo tag and visual appearance or makeup of the nest including inward and outer numerical judgment will be additionally thought of. Nest stature, vegetation around and tallness of nest, nest bearing material will be likewise recoded. Information with respect to red vented bulbul as a pest for example harms to plants and crops,seed dispersal and as a predator will be additionally noted. Nikon Monarch 5 ATB 8×42 Binoculars will be utilized to study the red vented bulbul in significantly more exact and broad manner, task like widths height and depth will be recorded utilizing geometry scale, Canon 200d DSLR camera will be utilized to take previews of nest, vegetations, eggs and concerned birds, android mobile base GPS (Global Positioning System) route

will be utilized to stick the geo tag of chosen locales, vernier caliper will be additionally utilized for measurments and an electric weight will be utilized to balance the eggs.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:                                                                           

Suitable statistical analysis will be performed to analyze the information on different parts of the ecology of red vented bulbul in Mianwali, Pakistan utilizing MegaStat (Statistical Software). A level of significance of 5% will be utilized for statistical significance.

ECOLOGY OF RED VENTED BULBUL (PYCONONOTUS CAFER) BY GIS MAPPING TECHNIQUE IN DISTRICT MIANWALI, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

  1. INTRODUCTION:

Pycnonotidae (bulbuls, greenbuls; class Aves, order Passeriformes) are group of medium-sized, dim, earthy colored and olive winged birds, with yellow, red, white, or dark regions. They have short to medium-length, flimsy, imperceptibly twisted bills, with rounded wings, and truly long tails. With hair-like neck plumes, rictal bristles, with lovely peak on certain species. They are basically arboreal, populating backwoods and trained terrains, nest in trees and on the ground. Among different types of bulbuls, the Hypsipetes have longer wings. Bulbuls are around 120 sorts of medium-sized, perching feathered birds, passed on among 15 genera, and making up the family Pycnonotidae, found in Africa, southern Asia, the Philippines, and the Moluccas. The most different class of Bulbul is Pycnonotus, with around 50 species – a portion of these bird varieties have likewise gotten comfortable Australia and North America.”

Appearance:

Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul) is about 8.25inch long (Berger, 1972) and weighs is between the 26 and 45 grams (Long, 1981). It has blackish top on head, neck and throat. Its tail is dark in concealing with a tightening white tip, anyway its backside and lower gut is pale grayish white. The under-tail coverts are dark red in concealing. (Zia et al, 2014). The little bird is similar to the adult except for there is some earthy colored edging on the tufts (Hawaii Audubon Society, 1993). Genders comparative, medium-sized, long tail passerines. Red-vented Bulbul is a lot heavier and somewhat greater (supreme length 20-23 cm; mass of male 36-59 g, of female 31-52 g. (William and islam, 2000). The female and male are same in appearance; nonetheless, the male is somewhat bigger, (Velde, 2002). It is normally found in trees (Kumar and Bhatt, 2000) The nest is cup shape, built by utilizing plant matter that remotely limited with cobweb. It is fixed with fragile material. In it are laid two to five pale pink to ruddy eggs. The eggs are set apart with streaks and hazier spots normally, there are around a 2 to 3 broods each year.

Breeding:

Red vented bulbul bread consistently, while cresting from early Jan to Oct. Broadened reproducing season moreover found in nearby degrees, all the more regularly, after and before stormy period of rainstorm, For example, in Pakistan, late Feb-early Sep; in India, Feb to Nov, with greatest in Feb and Oct. Alternately, introduced species in Southern Hemisphere show contracted breeding season; in Fiji and Samoa, Nov-Jan. (Islam and William, 2000). Pycnonotuscafer (red-vented bulbuls) are known to rearing all through year (Hawaii Audubon Society, 1993), most noteworthy pace of rearing among January and October (Berger, 1981). This winged creature can have up to three broods each season (Long, 1981). At any one time around 2 to 4 eggs are laid (Hawaii Audubon Society, 1993). The eggs of the bulbul is oval, with ground concealing pinkish white with minimal red earthy colored hued spots (zia et.al,2013). The nest is cup like and made of rootlets and sometimes spider webs (Long, 1981). The hatching time length is about 14 days (Berger, 1981: Shehata, 1996).

Status:

Pycnonotus cafer is Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (IUCN Red List, 2010).

Threats and Protection:

Right now, red vented bulbul isn’t known to confront any significant dangers (Bird life international, 2010). In the past the red-vented bulbul, close by various bulbuls, was kept as a cage pet. Fortunately this movement has been profoundly diminished, as it is the coincidental or purposeful arrival of cage birds that has achieved the red-vented bulbul assaulting such countless nations outside of its nearby reach (Global intrusive species database,2010).

As it is a typical bird type with an enormous assortment and has such a tremendous local range, the red-vented bulbul isn’t seen as endangered (Birdlife worldwide, 2010).

Role of Geographical Information System (GIS)

Geographical information science (GIS) has played an increasing role in biogeography over the last decade. Considerable recent research activity has been associated with certain aspects of GIS, notably remote sensing. Remote sensing now routinely provides environmental information at scales from the local to global and geographical information systems provide, among other things, a means to store, analyse and visualize spatial data. Together with associated advancements in computational facilities, GIS is making major contributions to bio geographical research (Anderson, 2008). The multifaceted nature of biodiversity complicates its characterization and measurement. Many indices may be used to represent biodiversity (Duro et al., 2007; Yue et al., 2007). The most widely used index of biodiversity is species richness, the number of species present, although this does not convey key information on the composition of species which is sometimes needed for activities such as the prioritization of sites for conservation. Often there is a desire to have relatively general assessments of key aspects of biodiversity and GIS may be a useful component to such activities (Gontier et al., 2006).

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

Aim:

  • To investigate the ecology and behaviour of red vented bulbul in District Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan.

Objectives:

  1. To gather information on habitat and food.
  2. To gather information on population distribution and diversity by GIS mapping technique.
  3. To gather information on nesting sites and nesting area.
  4. To gather information on breeding biology.
  5. To gather information on negative impact of specie on crops andother plants and animal species.

 

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW:

RED VENTED BULBUL: GIS IMPORTANCE AND ITS APPLICATION

Appearance:

Red-vented bulbul is weighed around 26 to 45 grams and length is about 8.25 inches. For the most part, it has peak and dark in shading, with a white rear end and mid-region and is dark red under the tail coverts. The adolescent juvenile is similar to adults except for there is some caramel edging on the plumes. The red-vented bulbul is bigger in size than the red-whiskered bulbul (P. jocosus).

The female and male are same in appearance, however male is marginally bigger than female (Stuart and Stuart, 1999; in Vander and Velde, 2002). It is ordinarily found in trees (Kumar and Bhatt, 2000), a speedy flyer with a flight that is conspicuous by being to some bouncy as opposed to even.” (Vander Velde, 2002) The cup molded nest of the bulbul is built of plant matter. It is fixed with sensitive material. In nest bulbul laid two to five pale pink to rosy eggs. The eggs are set apart with streaks and darker spots. There are much of the time 2 to 3 broods each year.

Habitat:

Pycnonotus cafer involve different sites, from backwoods to gardens and metropolitan parks. Most ordinarily, found in zones with greenery and optional turn of events, where it develops its nest. Leaning toward the tree cavities and profundity of hedges as opposed to open branches, on account of its wellbeing. (3) (8). They are additionally present in rural spot. (Dept. of Agriculture – WA).

Behavior:

The Red-vented Bulbul, is extensively present all through the Indian sub-continent, they are partitioned into 7 races. It is an arboreal occupant bird, routinely found in forests and gardens. It is non-territorial, and can be seen in large flocks and pairs. In the current assessment, data have been gathered on the foraging behavior of Red-vented Bulbul, and motivation behind this investigation is to break down the financial significance of Red Vented Bulbul, in term of loss, assuming any, it causes to farming and cultivation. The examination was finished from April 1995 to April 1997 in and around Gurukul Kangri University campus, Haridwar (78°8’E 29°55’N), India. Basic trees and shrubberies of this rural region comprises ClerodendronindicumPolyalthealongifolia, Hibiscus sp., Mangiferaindica, Rosa spp., Pithecellobium dulce, Litchi chinensis and some different species. The examination site was visited day break to nightfall and once in seven days.

Foraging behavior of (Pycnonotus cafer) in Haridwar, India Dinesh bhatt and Anil kumar recognitions were made on feeding behavior. Right when a solitary individual, gathering or pair was seen feeding, it was considered as one recognition. In the non-rearing season, groups of 8 to 24 individual evidently fed together, while in the breading season birds were found in little rushes or either alone (two to five individual). In the examination zone 17 sorts of plant species were used as a food. Out of these plants, the most commonly fruit was used is Solanum torvum (17.0% of the all outs perception). The second and third inclination of Red Vented Bulbul were the leaves of Medicago sativa and mature fruit of Lantana camara, separately. Numerous perceptions were made on feeding behavior, out of 377 perceptions, 55.9% incorporated the use of ripe fruits, 17.0% unripe fruit, 13.8% leaves and 13.8% nectar. Inspite of the way that only 22.7% of each ripened fruit were from refined plants, this could be monetarily benefecial if much number of flying creatures were available. It gives that, anyway birds were living in rural zone, they were still depend upon wild plant species for sustenance when contrasted with distinctive frugivorous bird species, in this way making lesser damage to human developed yields. In any case, the red vented bulbul takes part to the dispersal of seeds of unwanted bushes, for instance, Solanum torvum, Lantana camara, whose fruit were shaped 27% of the noticed eating regimen schedule.

A significant recognition on the searching conduct of this bird is that at some point, it benefits from the nectar of a some of plants, including the cotton tree (Bombax ceiba), Bottlebrush, (Callistemon utilis) and Banana (Musa paradisiaca). Recently (Parasharya et.al, 1995) announced that this specie is not a serious pest of sorghum crops. The general abundance of this species among feeding birds was low (4.34%). In the current examination, Red-vented Bulbuls were likewise noticed profiting by different animal species (absolute 88 perceptions). These were according to the accompanying; including mosquitos and mayflies (got in flight) and these are little size insects, dipteran hatchlings, ants, aphids, (56.8%); large insects, including cockroaches, crickets, grasshoppers, winged termites, (37.5%); vertebrates (seven to nine cm long), including skinks, house reptiles, (5.7%).Birds were likewise observed to feed upon over ripe fruit in trash and disposed sweets. Bulbuls are basic frugivores and seed dispersers of open auxiliary vegetation all through tropical and subtropical Asia (Lever 1987, Corlett 1998). Up to now almost little information was accessible on the foraging behavior of the Red-vented Bulbul (Parasharya et.al, 1995; Dhamke ,1997). An intriguing perception was the usage of leaves of Medicago sativa in light of the fact that leaf use is uncommon in bulbul.

Red-vented Bulbuls get food from petals of the flower of Tecomellaundulata, Bauhinia variegata and Pisum sativum in a developed territory outside the investigation locale. Another investigation directed by S. Rajakaruna and S. Wickramasinghe in 2012 at the premises of Faculty of Applied sciences, Rajarata school of Sri Lanka and in the forest patch that is arranged close and that woodland is dry land region (lat. 8° 19′ 60″ N/Lon. 80° 31′ 0″ E), from January, 2011 to May, 2011 to recognize the impacts of feeding behavior of the Red-vented Bulbul on the chose environment. It is a typical inhabitant of trees, non-territorial and can happen in pair or in significant gatherings. Perception were taken each day, along the cut across of 50 m width and 300 m long by utilizing the scan sampling method. No perceptions were made during heavy rains. For each foraging attempt, microhabitat feature, for instance, height over the ground, plant species used for food and food substrate were recorded. According to the investigation results, 59% of burned-through food was insects, 22% fruits and other were under 5%. The prevailing plant utilized for food was Azadirachtaindica and it was utilized 34.93% and plant utilized for resting is Schleicheraoleosa and it was 45.7%. The examination distinguished the feeding nature of Red Vented Bulbul and it might be used for ecosystem management, and for the conservation of plants and bird species in the Mihinthale Sanctuary.

Acoustic communication:

Another investigation was done that manages acoustic communication in the Pycnonotuscafer. This species communicates vocal signals that are profoundly factor can be arranged reliant on their setting of creation and acoustical highlights. Bulbul sang all the year and most songs were generalized and discrete. The piece of tunes were phrases with minor essential basic assortments of parts that were trailed by a temporal gap (3 to 12 s). Most strophes were made out of two to six segments that were not comparative in structure with range between 0.98 to 4.5 kHz. The biological capacity of the song is to keep up pair bonds and to synchronize reproducing exercises. Various kinds of setting explicit calls were recognized. They conveyed Type-II alert calls,(narrow frequency range, 1.37 to 3.39 kHz) under high predation tension and Type-I alarm calls (brisk and wide-band, 1.03 to 6.36 kHz) under low predation tension. Roosting calls were brisk and wide-band signals resemble Type-I alarm calls. Three kinds of contact calls were recorded in little birds. Welcome calls and flight calls were made out of complex expressions, like tune, yet were short and used for proximate capacity (Kumar,2004).

(Munoz and Brandstatter et.al, 2015) found a communication network between red-vented bulbuls and essential mynas in Mo’orea, French Polynesia. Mynas responded to bulbul alarm calls,However, bulbuls didn’t respond to myna alarm calls. Hence, listening covertly is awry in this structure. Bulbuls responded to explicit alarm calls by increment in the pace of flights near the speaker, which shows that individual are advancing toward the speaker maybe to check outwardly the degree of threat that a predator utilize. Avian predators on Mo’orea incorporate feral cats, (Felis domesticus), rodents (rattus, Rattus exulans) and swamp harriers (Circus approximans), (Blanvillain et.al, 2003). Inspite that both, the mynas and bulbuls being of tantamount sizes, the two species may not fall prey comparatively to all predators, a model that could prompt awry snoopping (Magrath et.al, 2009). We watched mynas both in trees and on the ground and, thusly, may be frail against all the recently referenced predatorss. By differentiating, we generally notice bulbuls to remain in trees; bulbuls might be defenseless on a very basic level to flying predators, for instance, swamp harriers

The Nest:

An examination which was directed by Rao and ojha et.al in 2011 found that during reproducing season both guardians take an interest in the nest development. P. cafer builds up the nest at the intersection of the bifurcated or trifurcated branch or on some comparable substrate to get a firm help at the base. Eventually P. cafer builds up the nest at the intersection where four to five branches meet and cross each other. For nest development it leans towards the material like as smooth and little branches, grasses and herbs. It is likewise seen that P. cafer assemble nest with polythene fiber. Bulbul develop their nest at different statures of trees. Red-vented Bulbul by and large picks 2.0 to 3.5 m. height for nest development, yet they don’t give need toward low tallness for instance < 1.0 m.

Red-vented bulbul-fabricated nest even on same plant or on various plants at various statures. It prefers to make nest on the forks of the trees (44%), followed by center (27%of the trees when contrasted with upper most part (16%) of the trees (Zia and Ansari et.al, 2014). Balakrishnan (2010) announced that dark bulbul makes nest in the focal point of the trees. In present examination level of successful nest (43%) were more in the fork of the trees and afterward in focal point of the trees as compared with the nest present on the top (11%) of the trees. The level of nest failure was high when the nest was based on the most height of the trees (30%) than in the middle of trees (20%). The data about the tallness of the nest from ground exhibits that favored tallness (53%) by red-vented bulbul was one to two meters as compared with top of the trees (11%with height two to three meters. Medium estimated prickly tree was favored by Red-vented bulbul for nest development in the examination area. Balakrishnan (2010) reported that the nest was not evenly distributed on the plants. The failure of the nest was more on top height than middle and lower spots of the tree. It was seen that most nest, previously or after development, demolished because of heavy rain fall, weight of predators and strong wind.

Some key exercises were recorded by (Narayana K and Swamy et.al, 2017) using D 90 SLR camera (400 mm point of convergence). The estimation of communication pose (Kumar, 2010). Behavior, various characteristics and parts of various displays were analyzed by utilizing photos. For the estimation of rise of the peak, a flat line was assumed control over the focal point of eye and proximal finish of upper mandible. One vertical line experiencing the apex of crest and focal point of eye. The angle was taken by top up position and top down position (0 to 5°Lowest and up to 105° generally important) Red-vented Bulbul dynamic nest site was spotted on thirteenth May 2013 out of an old building of our University campus. On 22nd May 2013, a chick that was tumbled down from the nest, saved and again positioned there. A sum of 43 output perceptions were noted during the 09:00 hr to 18:00 hr. Among the recorded exercises, guardians sustain to chick was high 27.9% sought after by calling 16.3%, moving and perching 14.0%, flying and guarding 9.3%, begging 4.7% and trimming and resting 2.3%. The bulbul exercises for instance top position and point down peak position (n=9), Middle peak position (n=17) and Up peak position (n=7). The chick was secured at 09:54 hr and set back in the nest at 09:59 hr. The parent bulbul visited the nest at 10:17 hr and took off with the chick to new zone, since various kinds of birds didn’t acknowledge to stay in their nest on account of predation (Kumar, 2010). In this current examination, a predator bird Spotted Owlet nest was seen around 15 m separated from our focused on Red-vented Bulbul nest site. During this situation they alarmed the chick by giving persistent calls as regularly, this bird can scan 275°-300° (Kumar 2010; Martin 2007). Begging behavior was seen in the chick after the appearance of parents at the new region on the ground. The chick extended their neck, rippled the wings and requested the food. The chicks opened their mouths when the parent visiting the nest with food, without guardians (between two continuing visits), they made begging calls and other display behavior which was seen only two times (4.7%) at 12:21 hr. furthermore, 12:23 hr.

Reproduction of red vented bulbul:

Current investigation results exhibited that the reproducing time of the Red-vented Bulbul begins from May to August with the most extreme rearing exercises are in June and July however, different authors noted particular period starting with one zone then onto the next in the range of the species. In general, reproducing time of the Red-vented Bulbul is accounted for from April to September with a top in August–September in BalaramAmbaji Wildlife Sanctuary Gujarat (Prajapati et.al,2011). According to (Rao et.al, 2013), this specie had reproducing season from March to October with top rearing exercises in September in Sikar Region, India.

Reproduction:

Reproducing season start from March to May in Haryana (Manju and Sharma 2013). They infer that in the examination region Red-vented Bulbul didn’t choose any man-made structure due to the way that the quality and measure of the vegetation gave adequate prime living space. In the examination region, P. cafer settled on five diverse plant species with normal stature of 1.9 m. The aftereffect of this examination is like the discoveries of (Zia et, al. 2013) who uncovered that the species supported nesting over the ground at tallness between 1–4m. Additionally, tallness of nest in bushes was around 2–3 m. The Nests comprised of plastic particulates, twigs, rootlets, metal wires and grasses. As demonstrated by (Prajapati et.al, 2011), the species chose 12 different plant species, regularly, at a tallness of 1.5–3.0 m yet didn’t uphold nesting at a stature under 1.0 m. In Sikar Region, nest was in 4 diverse plant species, anyway some were on man-made structures, for instance, wires and electricity boxes (Manju and Sharma 2013). In Haryana, nest was set on 12 diverse plant species at a tallness of 2.0–3.5 m (Rao et.al, 2013).

In Rawalpindi Islamabad Red-vented Bulbul got comfortable five particular plant species, including Psidium guajava, Zizyphusnummularia, Dodoneaviscosa, Dalbergia sissoo, and Phoenix dactylifera (Zia et.al, 2013). The eggs of Red-vented Bulbul have spots of hazier red with pale pinkish shading and they are thick at the wide end. clutch size of Red-vented Bulbul in the examination region was 2.3 range between 1–3, somewhat lower than the 2–3 found. (Prajapati et, al.2011; Manju and Sharma 2013 and Rao et.al, 2013). Normal clutch proportion of Red Vented Bulbul was 2.5, ranges between 1–4 (Zia et.al, 2013). The assortment in clutch size is seemed, by all accounts, to be associated with food accessibility for the nestling, a greater clutch size is laid when such food is sufficent (Vijayan, 1980). Ordinary egg broadness and length assessed by (Prajapati et.al, 2011) was 20.0 and 16.6 mm in Balaram-Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary Gujarat, by and large greater than (Rao et.al,2013) the recorded length and broadness of (Podoces,2014) 18.8 and 14.6 mm in Sikar Region, generally smaller when compared with the record of Tehsil Mansehra. Invesment in egg size might be related with the all outs energy interest for endurance, on the female versus the pre-settling energy commitment from sustenance; low input, smaller and less eggs, however high input more and greater eggs. The record of nesting and hatching periods marginally not quite the same as other examination in the species reproducing conveyance, nestling time of 12 days and a hatching time of 14 days. (Prajapati et.al, 2011) recorded a hatching time of 11–14 days. (Manju and Sharma, 2013) recorded a settling season of 14 days and hatching time of 9–12 days. The brooding time length recorded by (Rao et.al, 2013) was 11–13 days while settling period was 12 days.

Nesting and brooding periods recorded by (Zia et.al, 2013) were 11–13 days. The distinction in hatching and settling periods depend on the quantity of young in brood, accessible food assets, age of guardians and nest tallness (Dhanda and Dhindsa,1998). Rearing achievement recorded in study site was moderately higher (59.4% of nest achievement and incubating accomplishment of 55.6%) when contrasted with the outcome record of various authors about reproducing distribution of Red Vented Bulbul (Prajapati et.al, 2011) recorded nest accomplishment of 37% and egg achievement of 53%, Similarly, (Rao et, al. 2013) recorded nest accomplishment of 54% egg achievement of 50%. As a result of heavy rain and high predation, rearing execution recorded in study site was marginally diminished. The incredible nest achievement and egg accomplishment in the examination zone were likely a direct result of good vegetation and food sources. In the examination zone, nest position, natural factor, food and settling material were good moderate reproducing accomplishment of P. cafer in the examination region.

An investigation directed in the yard arranged in the city of Bikaner (28°N latitude and 73°18’E longitudes), Rajasthan, on a little Araucaria tree planted in a pot where the bulbul built up its nest. Both the female and male took an interest in the occasion. The clutch size was of a 2 to 3 eggs, which hatched in 14-15 days. Female brought the feed for the energetic chicks which appeared to be consistently hungry. Mostly, the food contained little insects and their hatchlings which clearly was snatched from nearby plantation. After hatching the youthful one created to their full size in around 15 days. It was seen that the male looked into guarding the nest and the off springs. Red vented bulbul was among the intruders which endeavored to assault the nest other than the crows. An immense finding was that the nest was reused by the adults for laying eggs. During the time of around more than two months, the nest was used threefold by a similar couple; first clutch size was of three while the accompanying one had 2 eggs all at once. The first group of youthful ones incubated were predated by the crow anyway the chicks which brought forth from the subsequent two grew up to take off (Srivastava,2012).

Reproducing execution of the Red-vented Bulbul was inspected in Sikar territory, Rajasthan state during March, 2010 to October, 2011. The number of occupants of P. cafer was more found in human living space than the non-human domain of the assessment district. This is a typical rearing flying creature here. During study period hard and fast 28 nest were viewed. Rearing period was seen from March to October from 2010 to 2011. P. cafer incline toward various plant species as a settling site, it likewise favors leafy, little and thick bushes for the settling. It is found that the incubating accomplishment was 50 %, settling accomplishment was 18 % and nestling achievement was 36 %. It is found that reproducing execution of the Red-vented Bulbul here was low. Clarifications behind the low reproducing execution are a direct result of low food accessibility, predation, starvation and desert ecological conditions (Rao and Ojha et.al, 2011).

As Pest:

Pycnonotus cafer is accounted for to harm beans, fruits, tomatoes, peas and ripe fruits, for instance bananas and some other soft fruits, (Dept. of Agriculture – WA undated). They may similarly help in the spread of seeds of different prominent species. The red-vented bulbul is ordinarily accused for three characterizations of negative impacts, for the most part related to its distinctive food that includes berries and fruits (Islam and Williams, 2000; Brooks, 2013) and buds, flower, insects and little reptiles (Vander velde,2002). Harm to developed plants is the most routinely declared impact of the red-vented bulbul in its outsider reach. The red-vented bulbul is additionally a dangerous seed disperser.

The red-vented bulbul has been represented to make harm something like 52 plant species. Identified with 33% (17 species) being decorative plant species and with 25 families with 67% (35 species) being food plants. The red-vented bulbul sway seems, by all accounts, to be not kidding particularly on Oahu (Hawaii), Walker (2008) declared them eating a few kinds of Fruits vegetables and flowers, prompting critical financial loss. The assessment of the loss to Oahu’s Orchid industry in one year (1989) was $300,000 (Fox, 2011) when the red-vented bulbul along with the Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonicus) ruin up to 75% of Hawaiian orchid and anthurium plantation (Cummings et.al, 1994). In New Caledonia, imperative impacts have been recorded for a couple of harvests and plant nurseries (Metzdorf and Brescia, 2008) with up to 35% losses (Caplong and Barjon, 2010). On the other hands the red-vented bulbul isn’t seen as a agricultural pest in Fiji (Watling, 1979), nor in Houston (Texas, USA) where it was found to essentially eat presented tropical plant species (Brooks, 2013).

The red-vented bulbul can spread the seeds of at any rate 33 plant species from 25 families. Among these species, 30% are seen as outsider (10 species) and 42% invasive (14 species) in the external regions. We found records of simply a solitary endemic (Coprosmataitensis, Tahiti) and eight Fdeso neighborhood species that are spread by red vented bulbul (Spotswood et.al, 2012). The red-vented bulbul is seen as an imperative vector of the intrusive tree Miconiacalvescens in Tahiti (Meyer, 1996) and can possibly dissipate seven other intrusive plant species in French Polynesia including Lantana camara (Spotswood et.al, 2012; 2013).

Its ability to scatter Miconia and Lantana isn’t simply because of the red-vented bulbul in any case, various species, both neighborhood and outsider furthermore dissipate seeds of these plants, and the tendency of the red-vented bulbul for the seed scattering of these plants changes here and there. Think about a model, the specie of silvereye (Zosterops lateralis) likewise scatter these seeds in Tahiti, anyway in Moorea the endemic fruit dove (Ptilinopuspurpuralis) dissipates seeds of these outsider plants. The red-vented bulbul having role in to the spread of essential homesteader weeds, in Fiji (Watling, 1979). In New Caledonia, red vented bulbul is associated with spreading seeds of another intrusive species: Schinus terebinthifolius, as typically viewed profiting by the fruits of these plants. (Spotswood et.al, 2012; Thouzeau-Fonseca 2013).

In the Middle East, cross fertilization between the fascinating red-vented bulbul and 3 firmly related nearby species, white-cheeked bulbul, (P. leucogenys); the white-eared bulbul (P. leucotis) and the yellow-vented bulbul, P. xanthopygos) is accounted for as a likely danger for nearby bulbuls (Khan, 1993; Nation et.al, 1997; Gregory, 2005: Azin et.al, 2008; Khamis, 2010). Red-vented bulbuls in Tahiti, be that as it may, have been found to convey the zoonotic sickness Chlamydia sp. (Blanvillain et.al, 2013).

On Oahu (Hawaii), the red-vented bulbul straightforwardly predates the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) prompts an incited shading changes against the orange transform in the monarch (Stimson and Berman, 1990). Following ten years, some authors announced a predation move to the hatchlings, prompting an overall lowering in sufficient number of the butterfly (Stimson and Kasuya, 2000). In Tahiti, red vented bulbul saw as a threat to the Tahiti monarch (Pomareanigra), a critically endangered and an endemic passerine, through challenge for nest site and spot to live (Blanvillain et.al, 2003).In Fiji, a couple of authors have uncovered red-vented bulbuls demonstrating rivalry and forceful conduct for food assets towards other passerine specie (Pernetta and Watling, 1978; Williams, 2011).However, it is suspected that the perception about the constrainment of local birds species to forest zone was essentially a result of environment misfortune rather than the forceful conduct of the red-vented bulbul in Fiji, (Watling, 1979). On Tutuila, it is explored that bulbuls rivaled two passerine species for food assets. (Sherman and Fall, 2010).

As of late, Discussion has thrived about deficiencies in the shortsighted “worst invasive species” approach and its overall scale. Here we investigate the status of the red-vented bulbul, an Asian passerine bird. This species has been introduced by and large across Pacific islands and is regularly accused for its consequences for cultivating and biodiversity by methods for dispersal of invasive plant seeds and because of rivalry with nearby fauna. The red-vented bulbul has now chosen islands and in seven territory territories outside its nearby reach. We exhibit that three classes of effects are connected with this species: disturbance of fauna, plant harm and seed dispersal. We arrange the list of plant species consumed by bulbul, 33 plant 31 species scattered, and 15 sorts of bird that this bulbul cooperate with. Examination yield that accentuation on better ways to deal with stop or measure the impacts of the red-vented bulbul stay scare. References about examining expected beneficial outcomes of this species are not many and only two instances of the administration activities against it. Our assessment of the writing found no away from for survey this species as one of the “world worst” invasive alien species (Thibault and Vidal, et.al,2013).

3.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

The current research will be conducted in district Mianwali by using GIS-based habitat model will be tested to perform habitat predictions for a selected specie. All GIS work will be performed using ArcGIS 9.1. The  study will be performed in three steps. First of all, three different models (resulting in three habitat suitability maps) will be built for three different extents. The models will be based on correlating a set of environmental variables with observation data for one species. Secondly, an evaluation of the models will be performed through validation (cf. testing the accuracy of the model) and comparison in order to determine which one will be performing best for the purpose of the study. Finally, the selected model will be applied on a fourth extent in a physical planning situation to quantify and assess potential habitat loss. For that purpose, the model will be applied on a planning scenario, comparing the results of the habitat model before development (current situation) and after development (with the changes the scenario imposed on the variables used in the model).

STUDY AREA:

The current investigation will be directed in Mianwali district. The Mianwali District is situated in the northwest of Punjab province, Pakistan. This area is filling in as a borderline between Province of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Mianwali region covers an area of 5, 840 square kilometers (2, 250 sq mi). The area in north is a continuation of the Pothohar Plateau and the Kohistan-e-Namak. Southern side of the region is a piece of Thal Desert while Indus river flow through the area. Occupants of Mianwali display the mixed culture of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. Mianwali area bears harsh climatic conditions, with a long and hot summer season and cold, dry winters. Summer range is extended from May to September and winter lasts from November till February. June is the hottest month with normal temperatures of 42 °C (most elevated recorded temperature 52 °C); in winter December and January month to month normal temperatures can be as low as 3 to 4 °C. The mean precipi

MATERIAL:

Following materials will be used for study:

1-Binocular

2-Data sheet

3-pen

4-pencil

5-camera

6-slide calipers

7-Note books

8-Balance

9-Measuring tape, and so on.

10- For data analysis Microsoft Excel programming will use tation in the region is around 385 mm.

STUDYDESIGN:

The current examination will be carried from May 2020 to April 2021 to investigate the ecology of red vented bulbul in the zone of district Mianwali. Information on behavior and ecology of red vented bulbul will recorded from the examination zone. A wide range of field methodologies will be applied through various phases of study. These procedures are completely partitioned into two classes.

First direct field observation and secondly information will be gathered from the local community, for instance: data from local occupants (Meetings with local individuals) farmers, local residents and others who know about birds, (particularly of red vented bulbul) will likewise be met about the bird diversity of the examination zone. The main focus will be made by visiting study site. Observations will be made on regular basis or twice per week according to requirement. During the collection of information every single tree, edges and corners of the walls will be carefully checked.

The remembering the occurrence and accessibility we made five investigation sites of Mianwali areas. Besides these assigned locales will be separated into various environment types as potential sites for the red vented bulbul. In such manner three particular living space sorts of red vented bulbul will be recognized in the examination region including;

Cultivated crop fields and related natural vegetation on boundaries.

Open lands and related natural vegetation.

For living space inclination and related biotic angles, botanical study of all unmistakable plant species for these specific chose destinations will be directed by utilizing quadrate strategy, size of quadrate will be 100 meters x 100 m for trees, 10 meters x 10 m for bushes and herbs/grasses.

 

TARGET POPULATION:

Following areas will be surveyed:

 

  • ChittaWatta,Mianwali,Punjab,Pakistan 32.6720753855166,71.666993319489
  • Chidru,Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan 32.54628507352669, 71.7748337794032
  • MusaKhel,Mianwali,Punjab, Pakistan 32.6339684853336, 71.739694560671
  • Marmandi Mianwali Punjab, Pakistan 32.60007135776794, 71.7558538858682
  • NamalLake,Mianwali,Punjab,Pakistan 32.6702179191125, 71.810427962210

 

DATACOLLECTION:

The most extreme need will be to utilize broad methodology for assortment of information, there visual hints as well as the calls of the concerned species will be recorded. Depending upon the pitch of calls, the distance of calling birds will be assessed from the eyewitnesses. Perching trees will be screened when the red vented bulbul made takeoff in early morning or hopped on the trees or other presence impressions like, droppings under the tree or leaves/or feathers under the tree will be additionally taken note. Night review will be additionally made after dusk in a month utilizing a light to be acquainted with the perching conduct around evening time. Broad methodologies like direct (locating) and indirect (calls, feathers, fecal pellets) and presence of the birds or it’s such an impressions and plumes inside a distance of 50-100 m from the transect will be noted. Nest of the concerned species will be found by following the individual red vented bulbul conveying settling material or food to the nest, or dependent on territorial gestures. Quality systems will be utilized during nest assessment to limit such a bothering to birds, and habitat, to overcome observer incited impacts.After finding active nest (nest with a female or eggs), it will be set apart by Global positioning system navigator utilizing Smartphone based Google maps and designated a particular number. Pinned nests will be visited day by day by a gathering of three people, three to multiple times in seven days during early mornings and evening from September to December, and after short stretches, from egg lying till fledging; nest will be visited on consistent schedule.

Data sheets containing all the recorded data, for example, rearing season, nest size and structure, vegetation at nest site, clutch size, brooding period and hatching success will be looked after reliably. Line based transect visits will be started before the beginning of reproducing season from May 2020 to September 2020 to record the information on various rearing aspects of red vented bulbul which incorporated the dates of first and last egg laying, number of eggs, shape, color and morphological pattern of eggs, date of hatching, number of successful incubated eggs, measurements of eggs, nest geo tag and visual appearance or makeup of the nest including inward and outer numerical judgment will be additionally thought of. Nest stature, vegetation around and tallness of nest, nest bearing material will be likewise recoded. Information with respect to red vented bulbul as a pest for example harms to plants and crops,seed dispersal and as a predator will be additionally noted. Nikon Monarch 5 ATB 8×42 Binoculars will be utilized to study the red vented bulbul in significantly more exact and broad manner, task like widths height and depth will be recorded utilizing geometry scale, Canon 200d DSLR camera will be utilized to take previews of nest, vegetations, eggs and concerned birds, android mobile base GPS (Global Positioning System) route

will be utilized to stick the geo tag of chosen locales, vernier caliper will be additionally utilized for measurments and an electric weight will be utilized to balance the eggs.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:                                                                           

Suitable statistical analysis will be performed to analyze the information on different parts of the ecology of red vented bulbul in Mianwali, Pakistan utilizing MegaStat (Statistical Software). A level of significance of 5% will be utilized for statistical significance.